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documents:external:our-american-government-2003 [2019/10/06 14:05]
Oliver Wolcott
documents:external:our-american-government-2003 [2019/11/16 00:40]
Oliver Wolcott [15.What qualifications are prescribed for a Member of Congress]
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 At the most basic level, the right to vote gives the citizen a chance to help select those who will ultimately be responsible for determining public policy. Beyond casting the ballot, a citizen may actively assist in nominating and electing preferred public officials through volunteer activities and campaign donations. The participation of citizens in the electoral process contributes greatly to the sense of legitimacy of the Government. At the most basic level, the right to vote gives the citizen a chance to help select those who will ultimately be responsible for determining public policy. Beyond casting the ballot, a citizen may actively assist in nominating and electing preferred public officials through volunteer activities and campaign donations. The participation of citizens in the electoral process contributes greatly to the sense of legitimacy of the Government.
  
-Citizen involvement in the Government need not be manifested only during election campaigns. Legislators are accustomed to hearing from constituents expressing opinions about issues of the day, and procedures exist that mandate that executive agencies allow time for public comment before proposed regulations become final. Individuals may also join with others who hold similar views +Citizen involvement in the Government need not be manifested only during election campaigns. Legislators are accustomed to hearing from constituents expressing opinions about issues of the day, and procedures exist that mandate that executive agencies allow time for public comment before proposed regulations become final. Individuals may also join with others who hold similar views to make the most of their influence with Government on particular issues; this is how interest groups or political action committees are established and the lobbying process begins.
- +
-to make the most of their influence with Government on particular issues; this is how interest groups or political action committees are established and the lobbying process begins.+
  
 ==== 4. What contributions has our country made to the institution of government? ==== ==== 4. What contributions has our country made to the institution of government? ====
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 **MEMBERS, OFFICES, AND STAFF** **MEMBERS, OFFICES, AND STAFF**
  
-==== 15.What qualifications are prescribed for a Member of Congress ====+==== 15. What qualifications are prescribed for a Member of Congress ====
  
 The Constitution (Article 1, Section 2 for the House and Section 3 for the Senate) prescribes qualifications for Members of Congress. The Constitution (Article 1, Section 2 for the House and Section 3 for the Senate) prescribes qualifications for Members of Congress.
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 The Capitol Hill office complex includes offices for House and Senate leaders and officers and for certain committees in the Capitol building itself, plus five House office buildings and three Senate office buildings, plus additional rented space in commercial office buildings near Union Station, north of the Capitol. The Capitol Hill office complex includes offices for House and Senate leaders and officers and for certain committees in the Capitol building itself, plus five House office buildings and three Senate office buildings, plus additional rented space in commercial office buildings near Union Station, north of the Capitol.
  
-The three main House office buildings are located on Independence Avenue, south of the Capitol. Proceeding from east to west, the three buildings are the Cannon House Office Building, completed in 1908; the Longworth House Office Building, completed in 1933; and the Rayburn House Office Building, completed in 1965. The buildings are named for the Speakers of the House at the time the construction of the buildings was authorized. In these buildings are located the personal offices of each Member of the House, as well as the offices of House standing committees. Two additional buildings were purchased in 1957 and 1975 for use by the House for additional office space. The first building, on C Street behind the Cannon Office Building, was renamed the Thomas P. O'​Neill House Office Building in 1990 and demolished in 2002. In addition to space for House committee and subcommittee staff, the building is now also the site of the House Page School Dormitory. The second building, on D Street SW, was renamed in 1990 the Gerald R. Ford House Office Building. Before becoming Vice President and President, Mr. Ford was House Republican Leader from 196573. He is the first person not to have been Speaker to have a House office building named after him.+The three main House office buildings are located on Independence Avenue, south of the Capitol. Proceeding from east to west, the three buildings are the Cannon House Office Building, completed in 1908; the Longworth House Office Building, completed in 1933; and the Rayburn House Office Building, completed in 1965. The buildings are named for the Speakers of the House at the time the construction of the buildings was authorized. In these buildings are located the personal offices of each Member of the House, as well as the offices of House standing committees. Two additional buildings were purchased in 1957 and 1975 for use by the House for additional office space. The first building, on C Street behind the Cannon Office Building, was renamed the Thomas P. O'​Neill House Office Building in 1990 and demolished in 2002. In addition to space for House committee and subcommittee staff, the building is now also the site of the House Page School Dormitory. The second building, on D Street SW, was renamed in 1990 the Gerald R. Ford House Office Building. Before becoming Vice President and President, Mr. Ford was House Republican Leader from 1965-73. He is the first person not to have been Speaker to have a House office building named after him.
  
 The Senate office buildings are located on Constitution Avenue, northeast of the Capitol. The buildings were completed in 1909, 1958, and 1982, and are named in honor of influential 20th century The Senate office buildings are located on Constitution Avenue, northeast of the Capitol. The buildings were completed in 1909, 1958, and 1982, and are named in honor of influential 20th century
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 ==== 50. What are the different types of appropriation measures? ==== ==== 50. What are the different types of appropriation measures? ====
  
-Appropriations are provided in three different types of appropriation measures. Regular appropriation bills are a series of measures that together fund many Federal operations and programs for a fiscal year (October 1September 30). Each of the 13 subcommittees of the House and Senate Appropriations Committees manages one regular appropriation bill. A supplemental appropriation bill is a measure which provides funds if a need develops that is too urgent to be postponed until the next fiscal year. Finally, a continuing resolution is a measure that provides stopgap funding if Congress is +Appropriations are provided in three different types of appropriation measures. Regular appropriation bills are a series of measures that together fund many Federal operations and programs for a fiscal year (October 1September 30). Each of the 13 subcommittees of the House and Senate Appropriations Committees manages one regular appropriation bill. A supplemental appropriation bill is a measure which provides funds if a need develops that is too urgent to be postponed until the next fiscal year. Finally, a continuing resolution is a measure that provides stopgap funding if Congress is unable to complete action on one or more regular appropriation bills before the beginning of a fiscal year.
- +
-unable to complete action on one or more regular appropriation bills before the beginning of a fiscal year.+
  
 All regular appropriation bills as well as supplemental appropriation bills that fund more than a single agency or purpose are also referred to as general appropriation bills. All regular appropriation bills as well as supplemental appropriation bills that fund more than a single agency or purpose are also referred to as general appropriation bills.
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 Sequestration is an across-the-board cut in Federal spending pursuant to a Presidential order. A sequestration order can only be issued if Congress fails to meet a budgetary requirement,​ such as a deficit target or a spending limit. Sequestration was first established in 1985 by the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Reduction Act, also known as the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act. Sequestration is an across-the-board cut in Federal spending pursuant to a Presidential order. A sequestration order can only be issued if Congress fails to meet a budgetary requirement,​ such as a deficit target or a spending limit. Sequestration was first established in 1985 by the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Reduction Act, also known as the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act.
  
-53. What are the powers of Congress as provided in the Constitution?​+==== 53. What are the powers of Congress as provided in the Constitution? ​====
  
 The Constitution (Article 1, Section 8) empowers Congress to levy taxes, collect revenue, pay debts, and provide for the general welfare; borrow money; regulate interstate and foreign commerce; establish uniform rules of naturalization and bankruptcy; coin money and regulate its value; punish counterfeiters;​ establish a postal system; enact patent and copyright laws; establish Federal courts inferior to the Supreme Court; declare war; provide for the armed forces; impeach and try Federal officers (Sections 2 and 3); and have exclusive legislative power over the District of Columbia. In Article II, Section 2, the Senate is given the power to consent to the ratification of treaties and confirm the nomination of public officials. Congress is also given the power to enact such laws as may be %%''​%%necessary and proper%%''​%% to implement its mandate in Article I. The power to enact laws is also contained in certain amendments to the Constitution. The Constitution (Article 1, Section 8) empowers Congress to levy taxes, collect revenue, pay debts, and provide for the general welfare; borrow money; regulate interstate and foreign commerce; establish uniform rules of naturalization and bankruptcy; coin money and regulate its value; punish counterfeiters;​ establish a postal system; enact patent and copyright laws; establish Federal courts inferior to the Supreme Court; declare war; provide for the armed forces; impeach and try Federal officers (Sections 2 and 3); and have exclusive legislative power over the District of Columbia. In Article II, Section 2, the Senate is given the power to consent to the ratification of treaties and confirm the nomination of public officials. Congress is also given the power to enact such laws as may be %%''​%%necessary and proper%%''​%% to implement its mandate in Article I. The power to enact laws is also contained in certain amendments to the Constitution.
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 ==== 67. How are record votes taken in Congress? ==== ==== 67. How are record votes taken in Congress? ====
  
-Most votes are taken by a simple voice method, in which the yeas and nays are called out, respectively,​ and the judgment of the chair as to which are greater in number determines the vote. If a recorded vote is desired, a sufficient second must support it. The +Most votes are taken by a simple voice method, in which the yeas and nays are called out, respectively,​ and the judgment of the chair as to which are greater in number determines the vote. If a recorded vote is desired, a sufficient second must support it. The Constitution simply provides that %%''​%%the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall at the Desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the Journal.%%''​%% A sufficient second in the Committee of the Whole is 25. Since 1973, the House has used an electronic voting system to reduce the time consumed in voting. The Senate continues to use an oral call of the roll. Each Chamber permits a minimum of 15 minutes to complete a vote, though time for each vote may be reduced if several votes are conducted sequentially.
- +
-Constitution simply provides that %%''​%%the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall at the Desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the Journal.%%''​%% A sufficient second in the Committee of the Whole is 25. Since 1973, the House has used an electronic voting system to reduce the time consumed in voting. The Senate continues to use an oral call of the roll. Each Chamber permits a minimum of 15 minutes to complete a vote, though time for each vote may be reduced if several votes are conducted sequentially.+
  
 ==== 68. Are there time limitations on debate in Congress? ==== ==== 68. Are there time limitations on debate in Congress? ====
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 ==== 91. What is meant by the "​seniority rule"? ==== ==== 91. What is meant by the "​seniority rule"? ====
  
-It had been the custom whereby a member who served longest on the majority side of a committee became its chairman or if on the minority, its ranking member. Members were ranked from the +It had been the custom whereby a member who served longest on the majority side of a committee became its chairman or if on the minority, its ranking member. Members were ranked from the chairman or ranking member down, according to length of service on the committee.
- +
-chairman or ranking member down, according to length of service on the committee.+
  
 Modifications—including party practices, term limits on chairmanships,​ and limits on the number of committees and subcommittees chaired—have caused the seniority rule to be less rigidly followed than previously. Nevertheless,​ length of service on a committee remains the predominant criterion for choosing its chairman and ranking member. In both Chambers, nominees for committee chairmen are subject to public votes, first in meetings of their party colleagues (in conference or caucus), then in the full Chamber. Members who interrupt their service in a Chamber but subsequently return to the Congress, start again at the bottom of a committee list. Returning Members outrank other new Members who have no prior service. New Members also earn seniority over other newly elected Members by having prior service in the other legislative Chamber. In some cases, in which two Members have equal time in service in a Chamber, prior service as a State Governor or State legislator also may contribute in the determination of seniority. Modifications—including party practices, term limits on chairmanships,​ and limits on the number of committees and subcommittees chaired—have caused the seniority rule to be less rigidly followed than previously. Nevertheless,​ length of service on a committee remains the predominant criterion for choosing its chairman and ranking member. In both Chambers, nominees for committee chairmen are subject to public votes, first in meetings of their party colleagues (in conference or caucus), then in the full Chamber. Members who interrupt their service in a Chamber but subsequently return to the Congress, start again at the bottom of a committee list. Returning Members outrank other new Members who have no prior service. New Members also earn seniority over other newly elected Members by having prior service in the other legislative Chamber. In some cases, in which two Members have equal time in service in a Chamber, prior service as a State Governor or State legislator also may contribute in the determination of seniority.
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 In addition to express powers, the President possesses powers that are not enumerated within the Constitution'​s text. These implied powers have been, and continue to be, a subject of dispute and debate. The task of attributing implied powers to the President is complicated by three factors: the importance of the presidency in the political strategy of the Constitution;​ the President'​s extensive and vaguely defined authority in international relations; and the fact that the President is often said to have inherent or residual powers of authority. In addition to express powers, the President possesses powers that are not enumerated within the Constitution'​s text. These implied powers have been, and continue to be, a subject of dispute and debate. The task of attributing implied powers to the President is complicated by three factors: the importance of the presidency in the political strategy of the Constitution;​ the President'​s extensive and vaguely defined authority in international relations; and the fact that the President is often said to have inherent or residual powers of authority.
  
-For example, although the Constitution does not grant to the President express power to remove administrators from their offices, as the chief executive, the President holds power over executive branch officers, unless such removal power is limited by public law. The President, however, does not have such implied authority over officers in independent establishments. When President +For example, although the Constitution does not grant to the President express power to remove administrators from their offices, as the chief executive, the President holds power over executive branch officers, unless such removal power is limited by public law. The President, however, does not have such implied authority over officers in independent establishments. When President Franklin D. Roosevelt removed a member of the Federal Trade Commission, an independent regulatory agency, and not part of the executive branch, the Supreme Court, in 1935, ruled the removal invalid.
- +
-Franklin D. Roosevelt removed a member of the Federal Trade Commission, an independent regulatory agency, and not part of the executive branch, the Supreme Court, in 1935, ruled the removal invalid.+
  
 Another implied constitutional power is derived from the President'​s authority as Commander in Chief. Though the Congress has the explicit power to declare war, the President not only has the responsibility to protect the Nation from sudden attack, but also has initiated military activities abroad without a formal declaration of war. American Presidents have authorized military force abroad more than 225 times, but only on five occasions has Congress declared war: The War of 1812, the Mexican War, the Spanish-American War, World War I, and World War II. In recent years, most notably through the War Powers Resolution of 1973, Congress has sought to define more clearly the conditions under which Presidents unilaterally can authorize military action abroad. Another implied constitutional power is derived from the President'​s authority as Commander in Chief. Though the Congress has the explicit power to declare war, the President not only has the responsibility to protect the Nation from sudden attack, but also has initiated military activities abroad without a formal declaration of war. American Presidents have authorized military force abroad more than 225 times, but only on five occasions has Congress declared war: The War of 1812, the Mexican War, the Spanish-American War, World War I, and World War II. In recent years, most notably through the War Powers Resolution of 1973, Congress has sought to define more clearly the conditions under which Presidents unilaterally can authorize military action abroad.
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 ==== 100. Have many bills been vetoed by Presidents? ==== ==== 100. Have many bills been vetoed by Presidents? ====
  
-As of August 31, 2003, U.S. Presidents have vetoed 2,550 bills presented to them by Congress. Of that total number, 1,484 were +As of August 31, 2003, U.S. Presidents have vetoed 2,550 bills presented to them by Congress. Of that total number, 1,484 were regular vetoes, and 1,066 were pocket vetoes. This may appear to be a large number of vetoes, but it actually represents about 3 percent of the approximately 93,555 bills presented to U.S. Presidents since George Washington. (See the accompanying table, Vetoes by Presidents.)
- +
-regular vetoes, and 1,066 were pocket vetoes. This may appear to be a large number of vetoes, but it actually represents about 3 percent of the approximately 93,555 bills presented to U.S. Presidents since George Washington. (See the accompanying table, Vetoes by Presidents.)+
  
 VETOES BY PRESIDENTS VETOES BY PRESIDENTS
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 ==== 104. What is the date for the commencement of a President'​s term and how is it set? ==== ==== 104. What is the date for the commencement of a President'​s term and how is it set? ====
  
-When the Constitution was ratified, Congress was given power to determine the date for beginning the operations of the new administration. Congress set the date of March 4, 1789. Although George Washington did not take the oath of office until April 30, 1789, his term began March 4. Later, the 20th or so-called %%''​%%lame-duck%%''​%% amendment, ratified in 1933, established January 20 as the date on which Presidents would be inaugurated. In 1937, President +When the Constitution was ratified, Congress was given power to determine the date for beginning the operations of the new administration. Congress set the date of March 4, 1789. Although George Washington did not take the oath of office until April 30, 1789, his term began March 4. Later, the 20th or so-called %%''​%%lame-duck%%''​%% amendment, ratified in 1933, established January 20 as the date on which Presidents would be inaugurated. In 1937, President Franklin D. Roosevelt became the first President to take the oath on January 20. When inauguration day falls on a Sunday, it is traditional practice for the President to take the oath privately on January 20 and to hold the public ceremony the following day.
- +
-Franklin D. Roosevelt became the first President to take the oath on January 20. When inauguration day falls on a Sunday, it is traditional practice for the President to take the oath privately on January 20 and to hold the public ceremony the following day.+
  
 ==== 105. What qualifications are prescribed for the President? ==== ==== 105. What qualifications are prescribed for the President? ====
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 ==== 113. Of these successions,​ how many were caused by the assassination of Presidents? ==== ==== 113. Of these successions,​ how many were caused by the assassination of Presidents? ====
  
-Four: Abraham Lincoln, James A. Garfield, William McKinley, and John F. Kennedy were assassinated. Andrew Johnson served as President all but 1 month of Lincoln'​s second term; Theodore Roosevelt served 3<​sup>​1</​sup>​⁄2 years of McKinley'​s second term; Chester A. +Four: Abraham Lincoln, James A. Garfield, William McKinley, and John F. Kennedy were assassinated. Andrew Johnson served as President all but 1 month of Lincoln'​s second term; Theodore Roosevelt served 3<​sup>​1</​sup>​⁄2 years of McKinley'​s second term; Chester A. Arthur served 3<​sup>​1</​sup>​⁄2 years of Garfield'​s term; and Lyndon B. Johnson served about 1<​sup>​1</​sup>​⁄4 years of Kennedy'​s term.
- +
-Arthur served 3<​sup>​1</​sup>​⁄2 years of Garfield'​s term; and Lyndon B. Johnson served about 1<​sup>​1</​sup>​⁄4 years of Kennedy'​s term.+
  
 ==== 114. What would happen if the President-elect were to die before taking office? ==== ==== 114. What would happen if the President-elect were to die before taking office? ====
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 ==== 122. How are executive departments and agencies funded? ==== ==== 122. How are executive departments and agencies funded? ====
  
-Most depend on annual appropriations passed by Congress. In some cases, though, the appropriation is permanent and requires no annual action by Congress. Certain agencies also operate from revenue received when loans are repaid and from non-appropriated +Most depend on annual appropriations passed by Congress. In some cases, though, the appropriation is permanent and requires no annual action by Congress. Certain agencies also operate from revenue received when loans are repaid and from non-appropriated funds such as money received from theaters, post exchanges on military bases, and various other types of user fees.
- +
-funds such as money received from theaters, post exchanges on military bases, and various other types of user fees.+
  
 ==== 123. Who oversees the operations of executive departments and agencies? ==== ==== 123. Who oversees the operations of executive departments and agencies? ====
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 ==== 128. To whom are independent agencies and commissions responsible?​ How do they report on their activities? ==== ==== 128. To whom are independent agencies and commissions responsible?​ How do they report on their activities? ====
  
-Independent regulatory commissions,​ Government corporations,​ and various other Government-sponsored enterprises are bodies headed by several commissioners,​ directors, or governors, who are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Unlike administrators of executive agencies, regulatory commissioners serve for fixed terms and cannot be removed at the pleasure of the +Independent regulatory commissions,​ Government corporations,​ and various other Government-sponsored enterprises are bodies headed by several commissioners,​ directors, or governors, who are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Unlike administrators of executive agencies, regulatory commissioners serve for fixed terms and cannot be removed at the pleasure of the President. In some cases, Government-sponsored enterprises may also have directors who are private citizens. While all of the independent regulatory commissions and most of the Government-sponsored enterprises submit their budget requests to OMB for review and clearance, the degree of dependence on these budgets varies considerably. While nearly all of the Government-sponsored enterprises generate a substantial part of their financial resources from outside sources, almost all the independent regulatory commissions rely on the Government for their funding.
- +
-President. In some cases, Government-sponsored enterprises may also have directors who are private citizens. While all of the independent regulatory commissions and most of the Government-sponsored enterprises submit their budget requests to OMB for review and clearance, the degree of dependence on these budgets varies considerably. While nearly all of the Government-sponsored enterprises generate a substantial part of their financial resources from outside sources, almost all the independent regulatory commissions rely on the Government for their funding.+
  
 Activities of all of these entities are presented in public reports which are prepared annually. In addition, they are subject to periodic authorization and appropriations hearings in Congress, where their activities and operations can be reviewed. Activities of all of these entities are presented in public reports which are prepared annually. In addition, they are subject to periodic authorization and appropriations hearings in Congress, where their activities and operations can be reviewed.
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 ==== 142. What is the tenure of a Federal judge? ==== ==== 142. What is the tenure of a Federal judge? ====
  
-Judges of the Court of Federal Claims, Tax Court, Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, and Court of Veterans Appeals have +Judges of the Court of Federal Claims, Tax Court, Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, and Court of Veterans Appeals have terms of 15 years, and judges of the territorial District Courts in Guam, the Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands have 10year terms. Otherwise, the judges of the courts mentioned in the preceding questions, including the Supreme Court, courts of appeals, and most Federal district courts, have %%''​%%good behaviour%%''​%% tenure as specified in the Constitution,​ which is generally considered to be life tenure.
- +
-terms of 15 years, and judges of the territorial District Courts in Guam, the Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands have 10year terms. Otherwise, the judges of the courts mentioned in the preceding questions, including the Supreme Court, courts of appeals, and most Federal district courts, have %%''​%%good behaviour%%''​%% tenure as specified in the Constitution,​ which is generally considered to be life tenure.+
  
 ==== 143. Why do most Federal judges have "good behaviour"​ tenure? ==== ==== 143. Why do most Federal judges have "good behaviour"​ tenure? ====
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 The Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act of 1987 guarantees the right of persons in military service or living abroad to vote by absentee ballot in Federal elections. The Voting Accessibility for the Elderly and Handicapped Act of 1984 mandates Federal standards of physical accessibility for polling places and registration sites and requires the availability of large type ballots and hearing devices for the handicapped. The Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act of 1987 guarantees the right of persons in military service or living abroad to vote by absentee ballot in Federal elections. The Voting Accessibility for the Elderly and Handicapped Act of 1984 mandates Federal standards of physical accessibility for polling places and registration sites and requires the availability of large type ballots and hearing devices for the handicapped.
  
-Voters must also meet State requirements in order to vote, the most common of which is registration. Citizens in 46 States and the District of Columbia must register between 10 and 50 days in advance of election day, while the States of Maine, Minnesota, and +Voters must also meet State requirements in order to vote, the most common of which is registration. Citizens in 46 States and the District of Columbia must register between 10 and 50 days in advance of election day, while the States of Maine, Minnesota, and Wisconsin provide for registration on election day. In addition, North Dakota does not require registration of voters, relying instead on presentation of personal identification at the polls. Thirty States and the District of Columbia require that voters be residents for a period of between 1 and 50 days prior to election day. In addition, most States bar registration and voting by convicted felons and those judged mentally incompetent.
- +
-Wisconsin provide for registration on election day. In addition, North Dakota does not require registration of voters, relying instead on presentation of personal identification at the polls. Thirty States and the District of Columbia require that voters be residents for a period of between 1 and 50 days prior to election day. In addition, most States bar registration and voting by convicted felons and those judged mentally incompetent.+
  
 ==== 152. Who is responsible for the administration of elections in the United States? ==== ==== 152. Who is responsible for the administration of elections in the United States? ====
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 ==== 157. What are these Presidential libraries and where are they located? ==== ==== 157. What are these Presidential libraries and where are they located? ====
  
-The Presidential libraries managed by the National Archives began with President Franklin D. Roosevelt, but the current program was established with the Presidential Libraries Act of 1955. Under the terms of this law, a former President or heirs may purchase land, usually near the former President'​s birthplace or hometown, erect a library edifice, place his papers and records in it, and deed the facility to the Federal Government. These libraries and their holdings are open to both scholars and the public. Presidential libraries have been established for Herbert Hoover (West Branch, IA), Franklin D. Roosevelt (Hyde Park, NY), Harry S Truman (Independence,​ MO), Dwight D. Eisenhower (Abilene, KS), John F. Kennedy (Boston, MA), Lyndon B. Johnson (Austin, TX), Gerald R. Ford (Ann Arbor, MI), Jimmy Carter (Atlanta, GA), Ronald Reagan (Simi Valley, CA), and George Bush (College Station, TX). A Richard M. Nixon Presidential Library has been built (Yorba Linda, CA), but it is a private facility and has not been deeded to the Federal Government. The Nixon Presidential records, however, remain in Washington, DC, due to a special 1974 Act of Congress placing them in the custody of the Archivist. A library also is being planned for William Clinton in Little Rock, AR. Web sites for Presidential libraries maintained by the Archivist of the United States may be found at [[http://​www.archives.gov/​presidential libraries/​index.html|//<​http://​www.archives.gov/​presidential libraries/​index.html>​.//]]+The Presidential libraries managed by the National Archives began with President Franklin D. Roosevelt, but the current program was established with the Presidential Libraries Act of 1955. Under the terms of this law, a former President or heirs may purchase land, usually near the former President'​s birthplace or hometown, erect a library edifice, place his papers and records in it, and deed the facility to the Federal Government. These libraries and their holdings are open to both scholars and the public. Presidential libraries have been established for Herbert Hoover (West Branch, IA), Franklin D. Roosevelt (Hyde Park, NY), Harry S Truman (Independence,​ MO), Dwight D. Eisenhower (Abilene, KS), John F. Kennedy (Boston, MA), Lyndon B. Johnson (Austin, TX), Gerald R. Ford (Ann Arbor, MI), Jimmy Carter (Atlanta, GA), Ronald Reagan (Simi Valley, CA), and George Bush (College Station, TX). A Richard M. Nixon Presidential Library has been built (Yorba Linda, CA), but it is a private facility and has not been deeded to the Federal Government. The Nixon Presidential records, however, remain in Washington, DC, due to a special 1974 Act of Congress placing them in the custody of the Archivist. A library also is being planned for William Clinton in Little Rock, AR. Web sites for Presidential libraries maintained by the Archivist of the United States may be found at [[http://​www.archives.gov/​presidential libraries/​index.html|<​http://​www.archives.gov/​presidential libraries/​index.html>​.]]
  
 ==== 158. Are there libraries across the United States that regularly receive copies of Federal Government publications as they are produced? ==== ==== 158. Are there libraries across the United States that regularly receive copies of Federal Government publications as they are produced? ====
  
-Many years ago, Congress recognized the desirability of making Government publications available to the public. The depository library program was created by Congress in order to promote the American public'​s awareness of the activities of their Government. Under this program, which is administered by the Superintendent of Documents of the Government Printing Office, nearly 1,300 libraries throughout the country receive Federal Government publications free of charge, and, in return, pledge to provide free access to all library patrons. Depository libraries are designated by law, by the Superintendent of Documents, and by Members of Congress. The Superintendent prepares lists of documents that are available to the depositories;​ and they, on the basis of patron interest, select publications for their collections. A congressional Member'​s office, a Federal Citizen Information Center, or a local reference librarian can usually help to identify the locations of depository libraries. A Government Printing Office Web site located at [[www.gpoaccess.gov/​libraries.html|//<​www.gpoaccess.gov/​libraries.html> ​//]]may also be consulted to locate depository libraries.+Many years ago, Congress recognized the desirability of making Government publications available to the public. The depository library program was created by Congress in order to promote the American public'​s awareness of the activities of their Government. Under this program, which is administered by the Superintendent of Documents of the Government Printing Office, nearly 1,300 libraries throughout the country receive Federal Government publications free of charge, and, in return, pledge to provide free access to all library patrons. Depository libraries are designated by law, by the Superintendent of Documents, and by Members of Congress. The Superintendent prepares lists of documents that are available to the depositories;​ and they, on the basis of patron interest, select publications for their collections. A congressional Member'​s office, a Federal Citizen Information Center, or a local reference librarian can usually help to identify the locations of depository libraries. A Government Printing Office Web site located at [[http://www.gpoaccess.gov/​libraries.html|<​www.gpoaccess.gov/​libraries.html>​]]may also be consulted to locate depository libraries.
  
 ==== 159. What is the Federal Citizen Information Center Program? ==== ==== 159. What is the Federal Citizen Information Center Program? ====
  
-Established in 1966 and managed by the Administrator of the General Services Administration,​ the Federal Information Center (FIC) is a single point of contact for people who have questions about Federal agencies, programs, and services. The FCIC currently responds to about 2 million calls per year via its nationwide, tollfree number: 8003344636. The Center is open for public inquiries from 8:00 AM to 8:00 PM ET each workday, except Federal holidays. Among the most frequent public inquiries are those having to do with workplace safety issues, State government matters, immigration and naturalization,​ Federal taxes, Federal employment, Government publications,​ disaster assistance, and consumer matters. A FIC Web site may be found at [[http://​fic.info.gov|//<​http://​fic.info.gov>​.//]]+Established in 1966 and managed by the Administrator of the General Services Administration,​ the Federal Information Center (FIC) is a single point of contact for people who have questions about Federal agencies, programs, and services. The FCIC currently responds to about 2 million calls per year via its nationwide, tollfree number: 8003344636. The Center is open for public inquiries from 8:00 AM to 8:00 PM ET each workday, except Federal holidays. Among the most frequent public inquiries are those having to do with workplace safety issues, State government matters, immigration and naturalization,​ Federal taxes, Federal employment, Government publications,​ disaster assistance, and consumer matters. A FIC Web site may be found at [[http://​fic.info.gov|<​http://​fic.info.gov>​.]]
  
 ==== 160. What special information resources may be found at the Library of Congress? ==== ==== 160. What special information resources may be found at the Library of Congress? ====
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 The Library of Congress in Washington, DC—which was established by an act of April 24, 1800 appropriating $5,000 %%''​%%for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress%%''​%%— is now a library both for the Congress and for the Nation. It was restarted in 1814, when Congress purchased Thomas Jefferson'​s personal library of 6,500 books to replace the 3,000 volumes that burned in the Capitol fire during the War of 1812. The Library serves Congress in numerous ways, especially through its collections,​ reference resources, and research and analysis provided by the Congressional Research Service, the Law Library, and other departments and divisions. The Library of Congress in Washington, DC—which was established by an act of April 24, 1800 appropriating $5,000 %%''​%%for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress%%''​%%— is now a library both for the Congress and for the Nation. It was restarted in 1814, when Congress purchased Thomas Jefferson'​s personal library of 6,500 books to replace the 3,000 volumes that burned in the Capitol fire during the War of 1812. The Library serves Congress in numerous ways, especially through its collections,​ reference resources, and research and analysis provided by the Congressional Research Service, the Law Library, and other departments and divisions.
  
-The Library'​s vast multimedia holdings include books, papers, maps, prints, photographs,​ motion pictures, and sound recordings. Among them are the most comprehensive collections of Chinese, Japanese, and Russian language books outside Asia and the Commonwealth of Independent States; volumes relating to science and legal materials outstanding for American and foreign law; the world'​s largest collection of published aeronautical literature; the most extensive collection in the Western Hemisphere of books printed before 1501 A.D.; and manuscript collections relating to manifold aspects of American history and civilization,​ including the personal papers of the Presidents from George Washington through Calvin Coolidge. No introduction or special credentials are required for persons over high-school age to use the general reading rooms; special collections,​ however, may be used only by those with a serious purpose for doing so. The Library of Congress Web site is located at [[www.loc.gov|<​//www.loc.gov//>]].+The Library'​s vast multimedia holdings include books, papers, maps, prints, photographs,​ motion pictures, and sound recordings. Among them are the most comprehensive collections of Chinese, Japanese, and Russian language books outside Asia and the Commonwealth of Independent States; volumes relating to science and legal materials outstanding for American and foreign law; the world'​s largest collection of published aeronautical literature; the most extensive collection in the Western Hemisphere of books printed before 1501 A.D.; and manuscript collections relating to manifold aspects of American history and civilization,​ including the personal papers of the Presidents from George Washington through Calvin Coolidge. No introduction or special credentials are required for persons over high-school age to use the general reading rooms; special collections,​ however, may be used only by those with a serious purpose for doing so. The Library of Congress Web site is located at [[http://www.loc.gov|<​www.loc.gov>​]].
  
 ==== 161. What special information resources are found in other Federal libraries? ==== ==== 161. What special information resources are found in other Federal libraries? ====
  
-The national medical collection is located at the National Library of Medicine <//​www.nlm.nih.gov//> in Bethesda, MD, and the national agricultural collection is housed at the National Agricultural Library [[www.nal.usda.gov|<​//www.nal.usda.gov//>]] in Beltsville, MD.+The national medical collection is located at the National Library of Medicine <http://​www.nlm.nih.gov>​ in Bethesda, MD, and the national agricultural collection is housed at the National Agricultural Library [[http://www.nal.usda.gov|<​www.nal.usda.gov>​]] in Beltsville, MD.
  
 ==== 162. How may someone get access to unpublished Federal records that are still in agency files? ==== ==== 162. How may someone get access to unpublished Federal records that are still in agency files? ====
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 ==== 167. Where are these congressional publications available? ==== ==== 167. Where are these congressional publications available? ====
  
-All Members receive a limited allotment of most congressional publications and documents. Committees also maintain a limited supply of hearings transcripts,​ committee prints, reports, documents, bills, and resolutions. The House and Senate each have a document room that is open to the public where bills, reports, public laws, and certain documents may be obtained free of charge. Some congressional publications and documents are available for purchase from the Superintendent of Documents of the Government Printing Office (GPO). Original or microform copies of the items may also be found, to varying extents, in major public libraries, Federal depository libraries, and university and law libraries throughout the United States. Congressional publications are available, as well, through websites of the Government Printing Office [[www.access.gpo.gov/​su docs/​index|(<​www.access.gpo.gov/​su docs/​index>​)]],​ the Library of Congress [[http://​thomas.loc.gov|(<​http://​thomas.loc.gov>​)]],​ and the House [[http://​www.house.gov|(<​www.house.gov/>​)]] and the Senate [[http://​www.senate.gov/​|(<​www.senate.gov/>​)]],​ the latter two sites providing avenues to committee Web sites where documents may be posted.+All Members receive a limited allotment of most congressional publications and documents. Committees also maintain a limited supply of hearings transcripts,​ committee prints, reports, documents, bills, and resolutions. The House and Senate each have a document room that is open to the public where bills, reports, public laws, and certain documents may be obtained free of charge. Some congressional publications and documents are available for purchase from the Superintendent of Documents of the Government Printing Office (GPO). Original or microform copies of the items may also be found, to varying extents, in major public libraries, Federal depository libraries, and university and law libraries throughout the United States. Congressional publications are available, as well, through websites of the Government Printing Office [[http://www.access.gpo.gov/​su docs/​index|(<​www.access.gpo.gov/​su docs/​index>​)]],​ the Library of Congress [[http://​thomas.loc.gov|(<​http://​thomas.loc.gov>​)]],​ and the House [[http://​www.house.gov|(<​www.house.gov/>​)]] and the Senate [[http://​www.senate.gov/​|(<​www.senate.gov/>​)]],​ the latter two sites providing avenues to committee Web sites where documents may be posted.
  
 ==== 168. How may someone obtain access to unpublished records of Congress? ==== ==== 168. How may someone obtain access to unpublished records of Congress? ====
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 World Wide Web Sites: World Wide Web Sites:
  
-[[www.congress.gov|www.congress.gov]] [Legislative Information System of Congress]+[[http://www.congress.gov|www.congress.gov]] [Legislative Information System of Congress]
  
-[[www.fedworld.gov|www.fedworld.gov]] [clearinghouse for information at many federal sites]+[[http://www.fedworld.gov|www.fedworld.gov]] [clearinghouse for information at many federal sites]
  
-[[www.loc.gov|www.loc.gov]] [Library of Congress site, including Thomas and legislation]+[[http://www.loc.gov|www.loc.gov]] [Library of Congress site, including Thomas and legislation]
  
-[[www.nara.gov/​fedreg|www.nara.gov/​fedreg]] [Office of Federal Register publications] ​+[[http://www.nara.gov/​fedreg|www.nara.gov/​fedreg]] [Office of Federal Register publications] ​
  
-[[www.uscourts.gov|www.uscourts.gov]] [federal judiciary, including Supreme Court]+[[http://www.uscourts.gov|www.uscourts.gov]] [federal judiciary, including Supreme Court]
  
-[[www.whitehouse.gov|www.whitehouse.gov]] [White House and presidential activities].+[[http://www.whitehouse.gov|www.whitehouse.gov]] [White House and presidential activities].
  
 ===== STATE APPORTIONMENT AND HOUSE APPORTIONMENT ===== ===== STATE APPORTIONMENT AND HOUSE APPORTIONMENT =====
documents/external/our-american-government-2003.txt · Last modified: 2019/11/16 01:20 by Oliver Wolcott